Explicit gender bias
Explicit gender bias (or ‘old fashioned’ discrimination) implies that people think women are unable to show the same performance as men. Examples are statements conveying that women are less competitive or ambitious than men, or prioritize their family over work commitments. Legal regulations prevent (acting upon) of explicit gender bias, and people can file formal complaints when men and women are treated differently.
Implicit gender bias
Implicit gender bias (or ‘modern’ discrimination), implies that people are less likely to consider women when important tasks, jobs, or assignments are distributed. This can emerge in different ways. For instance, because the ideal image of a top scientist has more overlap with male than female charateristics, or because a man is more likely to be given the ‘benefit of doubt’, where a women has to offer more explicit evidence of her abilities. Implicit gender bias is perpetuated by formulating evaluation criteria in terms that more closely match the male stereotype than the female stereotype, or by providing images of men to illustrate success. It mostly happens unwittingly and unintentionally, and is often hard to prove. Yet this damages the well-being, motivation and performance of those who are exposed to implicit bias.
Relevant facts and statistics
Discussions about the possibility of gender bias in academic careers tend to be obscured by references to individual beliefs or convictions. As scientists, we strongly believe in the power of facts. Relevant statistics and research findings clearly illustrate the different realities faced by men and women in academic careers. With the links below we indicate where such information can be found.