Forms of bias

  • Prove-it-again: women generally have to provide more evidence than men to be judged as equally competent.
  • Maternall wall: mmaternity has a negative impact on the assessment of women
  • Tightrope: assertive behaviour of women is often not appreciated
  • Tug-of-war: female evaluators do not always stand up for younger women

Creativiteit wordt met mannelijkheid geassocieerd

Creative thinking is one of the conditions that enables researchers to conduct innovative scientific research and is often seen as a criterium to evaluate the quality of researchers. Based on a serie of five studies, the ability to think creative (‘outside-the-box’) is found to be systematically more associated with men than with women.

Proudfoot, D., Kay, A. C., & Koval, C. Z. (2015). A gender bias in the attribution of creativity: Archival and experimental evidence for the perceived association between masculinity and creative thinking. Psychological Science.

research report
Leslie, S.-J., Cimpian, A., Meyer, M., & Freeland, E. (2015). Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines. Science347, 262-265.

Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review102, 4-27.